English Translation of Al-Quran
.Surah Al-Baqarah [The Cow]
Ayat 185. The month of Ramadan in which was revealed the Qur’an, a guidance for mankind and clear proofs for the guidance and the criterion (between right and wrong). So whoever of you sights (the crescent on the first night of) the month (of Ramadan i.e. is present at his home), he must observe Saum (fasts) that month, and whoever is ill or on a journey, the same number [of days which one did not observe Saum (fasts) must be made up] from other days. Allah intends for you ease, and He does not want to make things difficult for you. (He wants that you) must complete the same number (of days), and that you must magnify Allah [i.e. to say Takbir (Allahu-Akbar; Allah is the Most Great) on seeing the crescent of the months of Ramadan and Shawwal] for having guided you so that you may be grateful to Him.
Tafseer of Surah Al-Baqarah Ayat Judgement (between right and wrong): Furqan the Al-Quran = the criterion or standard by which we judge between right and wrong. Allah’s revelation, the expression of Allah’s Will, is the true standard of right and wrong. It may be in a Book or in Allah’s dealings in history. All these may be called His Signs or Miracles. In this passage some commentators take the Scripture and the Criterion (Furqan) to be identical. Others take them to be two distinct things: Scripture being the written Book and the Criterion being other Signs. The word Furqan also occurs in 21:48 in connection with Moses PBUH and Aaron PBUH and in the first verse of Surah 25, as well as in its title, in connection with Muhammad [SAWW](PBUH) . As Aaron PBUH received no Book, Furqan must mean the other Signs. Al Mustafa [SAWW](PBUH) had both the Book and the other Signs: perhaps here too we take the other Signs as supplementing the Book. Cf. Wordsworth’s “Arbiter undisturbed of right and wrong.” The regulations are again and again coupled with an insistence on two things: (a) the facilities and concessions given, and (b) the spiritual significance of die fast, without which it is like an empty shell without a kernel. If we realize this, we shall look upon Ramadan, not as a burden, but as a blessing, and shall be duly grateful for the lead given to us in this matter
English Translation of Hadith
Hazrat Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Messenger of Allah [SAWW](PBUH) said, “Do not observe Saum (fasting) for a day or two days preceding Ramadan. However, if a person is in the habit of observing Saum on a particular day (which may fall on these dates), he may fast on that day.”
[Muslim Book 6, Hadith Number 2382].
Lesson: as mentioned above in Surah Baqarah Ayat 185.”So whoever of you sights (the crescent on the first night of) the month (of Ramadan i.e. is present at his home), he must observe Saum (fasts) that month,” “However, if a person is in the habit of observing Saum on a particular day” means that if it is his routine to observe Saum on these days, then he can do so two days before the advent of Ramadan. The reason being that in that case his Saum will not be for the reception of Ramadan but a matter of routine. Some people have taken “one or two days before” to mean the first two days of the second half of Shawwal on the grounds that some Ahadith contain prohibition of observing Saum in the second fortnight of Shawwal. Because of this injunction, it is not permissible to observe Saum in these days, except in case it is one’s routine.